full title · Published initially as The Tragicall History
of D. Faustus, then as The Tragicall History of the Life and Death of Doctor Faustus
author · Christopher Marlowe
type of work · Play
genre · Tragedy
language · English
time and place written · Early 1590s; England
date of first publication · The A text was first published
in 1604, the B text in 1616.
publisher · Uncertain; possibly Philip Henslowe, a theatrical
narrator · None for the most part, but the Chorus, which
appears intermittently between scenes, provides background information and comments on the action
point of view · While he sometimes cedes the stage to the
Chorus or the lesser, comic characters, Faustus is central figure in the play, and he has several long soliloquies that let
us see things from his point of view.
tone · Grandiose and tragic, with occasional moments of low
tense · The Chorus, who provides the only narration, alternates
between the present and past tenses.
setting (time) · The 1580s
setting (place) · Europe, specifically Germany and Italy
protagonist · Doctor Faustus
major conflict · Faustus sells his soul to Lucifer in exchange
for twenty-four years of immense power, but the desire to repent begins to plague him as the fear of hell grows in him.
rising action · Faustus’s study of dark magic and his
initial conversations with Mephastophilis
climax · Faustus’s sealing of the pact that promises
his soul to Lucifer
falling action · Faustus’s traveling of the world and
performing of magic for various rulers
themes · Sin, redemption, and damnation; the conflict between
medieval and Renaissance values; absolute power and corruption; the dividedness of human nature
motifs · Magic and the supernatural; practical jokes
symbols · Blood; Faustus’s rejection of the ancient
authorities; the good angel and the evil angel
The play constantly hints at Faustus’s ultimate damnation. His blood congeals when he tries to sign away his
soul; the words Homo fuge, meaning “Fly, man!”, appear on his arm after he makes the pact; and he is constantly
tormented by misgivings and fears of hell.
Faustus, a well-respected German scholar, grows
dissatisfied with the limits of traditional forms of knowledge—logic, medicine, law, and religion—and decides
that he wants to learn to practice magic. His friends Valdes and Cornelius instruct him in the black arts, and he begins his new career as a magician by summoning up Mephastophilis, a devil. Despite Mephastophilis’s warnings about the horrors of hell, Faustus tells the devil to return to his master, Lucifer, with an offer of Faustus’s soul in exchange for twenty-four years of service from Mephastophilis. Meanwhile, Wagner, Faustus’s servant, has picked up some magical ability and uses it to press a clown named Robin into his service.
returns to Faustus with word that Lucifer has accepted Faustus’s offer. Faustus experiences some misgivings and wonders
if he should repent and save his soul; in the end, though, he agrees to the deal, signing it with his blood. As soon as he
does so, the words “Homo fuge,” Latin for “O man, fly,” appear branded on his arm. Faustus again has
second thoughts, but Mephastophilis bestows rich gifts on him and gives him a book of spells to learn. Later, Mephastophilis
answers all of his questions about the nature of the world, refusing to answer only when Faustus asks him who made the universe.
This refusal prompts yet another bout of misgivings in Faustus, but Mephastophilis and Lucifer bring in personifications of
the Seven Deadly Sins to prance about in front of Faustus, and he is impressed enough to quiet his doubts.
with his new powers and attended by Mephastophilis, Faustus begins to travel. He goes to the pope’s court in Rome, makes himself invisible, and plays a series of tricks. He disrupts
the pope’s banquet by stealing food and boxing the pope’s ears. Following this incident, he travels through the
courts of Europe, with his fame spreading as he goes. Eventually, he is invited to the court
of the German emperor, Charles V (the enemy of the pope), who asks Faustus to allow him to see Alexander the Great, the famed fourth-century b.c. Macedonian king and conqueror. Faustus conjures up an image
of Alexander, and Charles is suitably impressed. A knight scoffs at Faustus’s powers, and Faustus chastises him by making
antlers sprout from his head. Furious, the knight vows revenge.
Robin, Wagner’s clown, has picked up some magic on his own, and with his fellow stablehand, Rafe, he undergoes a number of comic misadventures. At one point, he manages to summon Mephastophilis, who threatens to turn Robin
and Rafe into animals (or perhaps even does transform them; the text isn’t clear) to punish them for their foolishness.
then goes on with his travels, playing a trick on a horse-courser along the way. Faustus sells him a horse that turns into
a heap of straw when ridden into a river. Eventually, Faustus is invited to the court of the Duke of Vanholt, where he performs various feats. The horse-courser shows up there, along with Robin, a man named Dick (Rafe in the A text),
and various others who have fallen victim to Faustus’s trickery. But Faustus casts spells on them and sends them on
their way, to the amusement of the duke and duchess.
twenty-four years of his deal with Lucifer come to a close, Faustus begins to dread his impending death. He has Mephastophilis
call up Helen of Troy, the famous beauty from the ancient world, and uses her presence to impress a group of scholars. An
old man urges Faustus to repent, but Faustus drives him away. Faustus summons Helen again and exclaims rapturously about her
beauty. But time is growing short. Faustus tells the scholars about his pact, and they are horror-stricken and resolve to
pray for him. On the final night before the expiration of the twenty-four years, Faustus is overcome by fear and remorse.
He begs for mercy, but it is too late. At midnight, a host of devils appears and carries his soul off to hell. In the morning,
the scholars find Faustus’s limbs and decide to hold a funeral for him.
Faustus is the protagonist and tragic hero of Marlowe’s play. He is a contradictory character, capable of tremendous eloquence
and possessing awesome ambition, yet prone to a strange, almost willful blindness and a willingness to waste powers that he
has gained at great cost. When we first meet Faustus, he is just preparing to embark on his career as a magician, and while
we already anticipate that things will turn out badly (the Chorus’s introduction, if nothing else, prepares us), there is nonetheless a grandeur to Faustus as he contemplates all the
marvels that his magical powers will produce. He imagines piling up wealth from the four corners of the globe, reshaping the
map of Europe (both politically and physically), and gaining access to every scrap of knowledge
about the universe. He is an arrogant, self-aggrandizing man, but his ambitions are so grand that we cannot help being impressed,
and we even feel sympathetic toward him. He represents the spirit of the Renaissance, with its rejection of the medieval,
God-centered universe, and its embrace of human possibility. Faustus, at least early on in his acquisition of magic, is the
personification of possibility.
also possesses an obtuseness that becomes apparent during his bargaining sessions with Mephastophilis. Having decided that a pact with the devil is the only way to fulfill his ambitions, Faustus then blinds himself happily
to what such a pact actually means. Sometimes he tells himself that hell is not so bad and that one needs only “fortitude”;
at other times, even while conversing with Mephastophilis, he remarks to the disbelieving demon that he does not actually
believe hell exists. Meanwhile, despite his lack of concern about the prospect of eternal damnation, -Faustus is also
beset with doubts from the beginning, setting a pattern for the play in which he repeatedly approaches repentance only
to pull back at the last moment. Why he fails to repent is unclear: -sometimes it seems a matter of pride and continuing
ambition, sometimes a conviction that God will not hear his plea. Other times, it seems that Mephastophilis simply bullies
him away from repenting.
Faustus is less difficult than it might seem, because Marlowe, after setting his protagonist up as a grandly tragic figure
of sweeping visions and immense ambitions, spends the middle scenes revealing Faustus’s true, petty nature. Once Faustus
gains his long-desired powers, he does not know what to do with them. Marlowe suggests that this uncertainty stems, in part,
from the fact that desire for knowledge leads inexorably toward God, whom Faustus has renounced. But, more generally, absolute
power corrupts Faustus: once he can do everything, he no longer wants to do anything. Instead, he traipses around Europe, playing tricks on yokels and performing conjuring acts to impress various heads of state. He
uses his incredible gifts for what is essentially trifling entertainment. The fields of possibility narrow gradually, as he
visits ever more minor nobles and performs ever more unimportant magic tricks, until the Faustus of the first few scenes is
entirely swallowed up in mediocrity. Only in the final scene is Faustus rescued from mediocrity, as the knowledge of his impending
doom restores his earlier gift of powerful rhetoric, and he regains his sweeping sense of vision. Now, however, the vision
that he sees is of hell looming up to swallow him. Marlowe uses much of his finest poetry to describe Faustus’s final
hours, during which Faustus’s desire for repentance finally wins out, although too late. Still, Faustus is restored
to his earlier grandeur in his closing speech, with its hurried rush from idea to idea and its despairing, Renaissance-renouncing
last line, “I’ll burn my books!” He becomes once again a tragic hero, a great man undone because his ambitions
have butted up against the law of God.
of Mephastophilis (spelled Mephistophilis or Mephistopheles by other authors) is one of the first in a long tradition of sympathetic
literary devils, which includes figures like John Milton’s Satan in Paradise Lost and Johann von Goethe’s Mephistophilis
in the nineteenth-century poem “Faust.” Marlowe’s Mephastophilis is particularly interesting because he
has mixed motives. On the one hand, from his first appearance he clearly intends to act as an agent of Faustus’s damnation.
Indeed, he openly admits it, telling Faustus that “when we hear one rack the name of God, / Abjure the Scriptures and
his savior Christ, / We fly in hope to get his glorious soul” (3.47–49). It is Mephastophilis who witnesses Faustus’s pact
with Lucifer, and it is he who, throughout the play, steps in whenever Faustus considers repentance to cajole or threaten him into staying
loyal to hell.
is an odd ambivalence in Mephastophilis. He seeks to damn Faustus, but he himself is damned and speaks freely of the horrors
of hell. In a famous passage, when Faustus remarks that the devil seems to be free of hell at a particular moment, Mephastophilis
[w]hy this is hell, nor am I out of it.
Think’st thou that I,
who saw the face of God,
And tasted the eternal joys of heaven,
Am not tormented with ten thousand hells
deprived of everlasting bliss?
when Faustus blithely—and absurdly, given that he is speaking to a demon—declares that he does not believe in
hell, Mephastophilis groans and insists that hell is, indeed, real and terrible, as Faustus comes to know soon enough. Before
the pact is sealed, Mephastophilis actually warns Faustus against making the deal with Lucifer. In an odd way, one can almost
sense that part of Mephastophilis does not want Faustus to make the same mistakes that he made. But, of course, Faustus does
so anyway, which makes him and Mephastophilis kindred spirits. It is appropriate that these two figures dominate Marlowe’s
play, for they are two overly proud spirits doomed to hell.
Themes are the fundamental and often universal ideas explored in a literary
Redemption, and Damnation
Insofar as Doctor Faustus is a Christian play, it deals with the themes at the heart of Christianity’s understanding
of the world. First, there is the idea of sin, which Christianity defines as acts contrary to the will of God. In making a
pact with Lucifer, Faustus commits what is in a sense the ultimate sin: not only does he disobey God, but he consciously and
even eagerly renounces obedience to him, choosing instead to swear allegiance to the devil. In a Christian framework, however,
even the worst deed can be forgiven through the redemptive power of Jesus Christ, God’s son, who, according to Christian
belief, died on the cross for humankind’s sins. Thus, however terrible Faustus’s pact with Lucifer may be, the
possibility of redemption is always open to him. All that he needs to do, theoretically, is ask God for forgiveness. The play
offers countless moments in which Faustus considers doing just that, urged on by the good angel on his shoulder or by the
old man in scene 12—both of whom can be seen either
as emissaries of God, personifications of Faustus’s conscience, or both.
time, Faustus decides to remain loyal to hell rather than seek heaven. In the Christian framework, this turning away from
God condemns him to spend an eternity in hell. Only at the end of his life does Faustus desire to repent, and, in the final
scene, he cries out to Christ to redeem him. But it is too late for him to repent. In creating this moment in which Faustus
is still alive but incapable of being redeemed, Marlowe steps outside the Christian worldview in order to maximize the dramatic
power of the final scene. Having inhabited a Christian world for the entire play, Faustus spends his final moments in a slightly
different universe, where redemption is no longer possible and where certain sins cannot be forgiven.
Between Medieval and Renaissance Values
Scholar R.M. Dawkins famously remarked that Doctor Faustus tells “the story of a Renaissance man who had to pay
the medieval price for being one.” While slightly simplistic, this quotation does get at the heart of one of the play’s
central themes: the clash between the medieval world and the world of the emerging Renaissance. The medieval world placed
God at the center of existence and shunted aside man and the natural world. The Renaissance was a movement that began in Italy in the fifteenth century and soon spread throughout Europe,
carrying with it a new emphasis on the individual, on classical learning, and on scientific inquiry into the nature of the
world. In the medieval academy, theology was the queen of the sciences. In the Renaissance, though, secular matters took center
despite being a magician rather than a scientist (a blurred distinction in the sixteenth century), explicitly rejects the
medieval model. In his opening speech in scene 1, he goes through every field of scholarship, beginning with logic and proceeding through medicine, law, and theology,
quoting an ancient authority for each: Aristotle on logic, Galen on medicine, the Byzantine emperor Justinian on law, and
the Bible on religion. In the medieval model, tradition and authority, not individual inquiry, were key. But in this soliloquy,
Faustus considers and rejects this medieval way of thinking. He resolves, in full Renaissance spirit, to accept no limits,
traditions, or authorities in his quest for knowledge, wealth, and power.
attitude toward the clash between medieval and Renaissance values is ambiguous. Marlowe seems hostile toward the ambitions
of Faustus, and, as Dawkins notes, he keeps his tragic hero squarely in the medieval world, where eternal damnation is the
price of human pride. Yet Marlowe himself was no pious traditionalist, and it is tempting to see in Faustus—as many
readers have—a hero of the new modern world, a world free of God, religion, and the limits that these imposed on humanity.
Faustus may pay a medieval price, this reading suggests, but his successors will go further than he and suffer less, as we
have in modern times. On the other hand, the disappointment and mediocrity that follow Faustus’s pact with the devil,
as he descends from grand ambitions to petty conjuring tricks, might suggest a contrasting interpretation. Marlowe may be
suggesting that the new, modern spirit, though ambitious and glittering, will lead only to a Faustian dead end.
as a Corrupting Influence
in the play, before he agrees to the pact with Lucifer, Faustus is full of ideas for how to use the power that he seeks. He
imagines piling up great wealth, but he also aspires to plumb the mysteries of the universe and to remake the map of Europe. Though they may not be entirely admirable, these plans are ambitious and inspire awe, if not
sympathy. They lend a grandeur to Faustus’s schemes and make his quest for personal power seem almost heroic, a sense
that is reinforced by the eloquence of his early soliloquies.
Faustus actually gains the practically limitless power that he so desires, however, his horizons seem to narrow. Everything
is possible to him, but his ambition is somehow sapped. Instead of the grand designs that he contemplates early on, he contents
himself with performing conjuring tricks for kings and noblemen and takes a strange delight in using his magic to play practical
jokes on simple folks. It is not that power has corrupted Faustus by making him evil: indeed, Faustus’s behavior after
he sells his soul hardly rises to the level of true wickedness. Rather, gaining absolute power corrupts Faustus by making
him mediocre and by transforming his boundless ambition into a meaningless delight in petty celebrity.
Christian framework of the play, one can argue that true greatness can be achieved only with God’s blessing. By cutting
himself off from the creator of the universe, Faustus is condemned to mediocrity. He has gained the whole world, but he does
not know what to do with it.
Nature of Man
is constantly undecided about whether he should repent and return to God or continue to follow his pact with Lucifer. His
internal struggle goes on throughout the play, as part of him of wants to do good and serve God, but part of him (the dominant
part, it seems) lusts after the power that Mephastophilis promises. The good angel and the evil angel, both of whom appear
at Faustus’s shoulder in order to urge him in different directions, symbolize this struggle. While these angels may
be intended as an actual pair of supernatural beings, they clearly represent Faustus’s divided will, which compels Faustus
to commit to Mephastophilis but also to question this commitment continually.
Motifs are recurring structures, contrasts, or literary devices that
can help to develop and inform the text’s major themes.
and the Supernatural
The supernatural pervades Doctor Faustus, appearing everywhere in the story. Angels and devils flit about, magic spells
are cast, dragons pull chariots (albeit offstage), and even fools like the two ostlers, Robin and Rafe, can learn enough magic
to summon demons. Still, it is worth noting that nothing terribly significant is accomplished through magic. Faustus plays
tricks on people, conjures up grapes, and explores the cosmos on a dragon, but he does not fundamentally reshape the world.
The magic power that Mephastophilis grants him is more like a toy than an awesome, earth-shaking ability. Furthermore, the
real drama of the play, despite all the supernatural frills and pyrotechnics, takes place within Faustus’s vacillating
mind and soul, as he first sells his soul to Lucifer and then considers repenting. In this sense, the magic is almost incidental
to the real story of Faustus’s struggle with himself, which Marlowe intended not as a fantastical battle but rather
as a realistic portrait of a human being with a will divided between good and evil.
he gains his awesome powers, Faustus does not use them to do great deeds. Instead, he delights in playing tricks on people:
he makes horns sprout from the knight’s head and sells the horse-courser an enchanted horse. Such magical practical
jokes seem to be Faustus’s chief amusement, and Marlowe uses them to illustrate Faustus’s decline from a great,
prideful scholar into a bored, mediocre magician with no higher ambition than to have a laugh at the expense of a collection
Symbols are objects, characters, figures, or colors used to represent
abstract ideas or concepts.
plays multiple symbolic roles in the play. When Faustus signs away his soul, he signs in blood, symbolizing the permanent
and supernatural nature of this pact. His blood congeals on the page, however, symbolizing, perhaps, his own body’s
revolt against what he intends to do. Meanwhile, Christ’s blood, which Faustus says he sees running across the sky during
his terrible last night, symbolizes the sacrifice that Jesus, according to Christian belief, made on the cross; this sacrifice
opened the way for humankind to repent its sins and be saved. Faustus, of course, in his proud folly, fails to take this path
Rejection of the Ancient Authorities
1, Faustus goes through a list of the
major fields of human knowledge—logic, medicine, law, and theology—and cites for each an ancient authority (Aristotle,
Galen, Justinian, and Jerome’s Bible, respectively). He then rejects all of these figures in favor of magic. This rejection
symbolizes Faustus’s break with the medieval world, which prized authority above all else, in favor of a more modern
spirit of free inquiry, in which experimentation and innovation trump the assertions of Greek philosophers and the Bible.
Angel and the Evil Angel
appear at Faustus’s shoulder early on in the play—the good angel urging him to repent and serve God, the evil
angel urging him to follow his lust for power and serve Lucifer. The two symbolize his divided will, part of which wants to
do good and part of which is sunk in sin.
Doctor Faustus, a talented German scholar at Wittenburg, rails against the limits of human knowledge. He has learned everything he can learn,
or so he thinks, from the conventional academic disciplines. All of these things have left him unsatisfied, so now he turns
to magic. A Good Angle and an Evil Angel arrive, representing Faustus' choice between Christian conscience and the path to
damnation. The former advises him to leave off this pursuit of magic, and the latter tempts him. From two fellow scholars,
Valdes and Cornelius, Faustus learns the fundamentals of the black arts. He thrills at the power he will have, and the great feats he'll perform.
He summons the devil Mephostophilis. They flesh out the terms of their agreement, with Mephostophilis representing Lucifer. Faustus will sell his soul, in exchange for twenty-four years of power, with Mephostophilis as servant to his every whim.
In a comic relief scene, we
learn that Faustus' servant Wagner has gleaned some magic learning. He uses it to convince Robin the Clown to be his servant.
Before the time comes to sign
the contract, Faustus has misgivings, but he puts them aside. Mephostophilis returns, and Faustus signs away his soul, writing
with his own blood. The words "Homo fuge" ("Fly, man) appear on his arm, and Faustus is seized by fear. Mephostophilis distracts
him with a dance of devils. Faustus requests a wife, a demand Mephostophilis denies, but he does give Faustus books full of
Some time has passed. Faustus
curses Mephostophilis for depriving him of heaven, although he has seen many wonders. He manages to torment Mephostophilis,
he can't stomach mention of God, and the devil flees. The Good Angel and Evil Angel arrive again. The Good Angel tells him to repent, and the Evil Angel tells him to stick to his wicked ways. Lucifer, Belzebub, and Mephostophilis return, to intimidate Faustus. He is cowed by them, and agrees to speak and think no more of God. They
delight him with a pageant of the Seven Deadly Sins, and then Lucifer promises to show Faustus hell. Meanwhile, Robin the
Clown has gotten one of Faustus' magic books.
Faustus has explored the heavens
and the earth from a chariot drawn by dragons, and is now flying to Rome,
where the feast honoring St. Peter is about to be celebrated. Mephostophilis and Faustus wait for the Pope, depicted as an
arrogant, decidedly unholy man. They play a series of tricks, by using magic to disguise themselves and make themselves invisible,
The Chorus returns to tell
us that Faustus returns home, where his vast knowledge of astronomy and his abilities earn him wide renown. Meanwhile, Robin
the Clown has also learned magic, and uses it to impress his friend Rafe and summon Mephostophilis, who doesn't seem too happy to be called.
At the court of Charles V, Faustus performs illusions that delight the Emperor. He also humiliates a knight named Benvolio. When Benvolio and his friends try to avenge the humiliation, Faustus has his devils hurt them and cruelly transform them,
so that horns grow on their heads.
Faustus swindles a Horse-courser,
and when the Horse-courser returns, Faustus plays a frightening trick on him. Faustus then goes off to serve the Duke of Vanholt. Robin the Clown, his friend Dick, the Horse-courser, and a Carter all meet. They all have been swindled or hurt by Faustus' magic. They go off to the court of the Duke to settle scores with
Faustus entertains the Duke
and Duchess with petty illusions, before Robin the Clown and his band of ruffians arrives. Faustus toys with them, besting
them with magic, to the delight of the Duke and Duchess.
Faustus' twenty-four years
are running out. Wagner tells the audience that he thinks Faustus prepares for death. He has made his will, leaving all to
Wagner. But even as death approaches, Faustus spends his days feasting and drinking with the other students. For the delight
of his fellow scholars, Faustus summons a spirit to take the shape of Helen of Troy. Later, an Old Man enters, warning Faustus
to repent. Faustus opts for pleasure instead, and asks Mephostophilis to bring Helen of Troy to him, to be his love and comfort
during these last days. Mephostophilis readily agrees.
Later, Faustus tells his scholar
friends that he is damned, and that his power came at the price of his soul. Concerned, the Scholars exit, leaving Faustus
to meet his fate.
As the hour approaches, Mephostophilis
taunts Faustus. Faustus blames Mephostophilis for his damnation, and the devil proudly takes credit for it. The Good and Evil
Angel arrive, and the Good Angel abandons Faustus. The gates of Hell open. The Evil Angel taunts Faustus, naming the horrible
tortures seen there.
The Clock strikes eleven. Faustus
gives a final, frenzied monologue, regretting his choices. At midnight the devils enter. As Faustus begs God and the devil
for mercy, the devils drag him away. Later, the Scholar friends find Faustus' body, torn to pieces.
Epilogue. The Chorus emphasizes
that Faustus is gone, his once-great potential wasted. The Chorus warns the audience to remember his fall, and the lessons
Faustus Himself: He sells his soul to the devil
A brilliant man, who seems
to have reached the limits of natural knowledge. Faustus is a scholar of the early sixteenth century in the German city of
Wittenburg. He is arrogant, fiery, and possesses a thirst
for knowledge. As an intellectual, Faustus is familiar with things (like demon summoning and astrology) not normally considered
academic subjects by today's universities. Faustus decides to sell his soul to the devil in exchange for earthly power and
knowledge and an additional 24 years of life. He proceeds to waste this time on self-indulgence and low tricks.
Faustus is the absolute center
of the play, which has few truly developed characters.
From the Hebrew, mephitz, destroyer,
and tophel, liar. A devil of craft and cunning. He is the devil who comes at Faustus' summoning, and the devil who serves
Faustus for 24 years. In lore, Mephostophilis (also spelled Mephistopheles, or Miphostophiles, and also called Mephisto) seems
to be a relative latecomer in the recognized hierarchy of demons. He possibly was created for the Faustus legend.
In Marlowe's play, Mephostophilis
has layers to his personality. He admits that separation from God is anguish, and is capable of fear and pain. But he is gleefully
evil, participating at every level in Faustus' destruction. Not only does Mephostophilis get Faustus to sell his soul; he
also encourages Faustus to waste his twenty-four years of power.
Wagner: Servant to Faustus. He steals Faustus' books and learns how to summon demons. At
the end of the play, he seems concerned about his master's fate.
Good Angel and Evil Angel: Personifications of Faustus' inner turmoil, who give differing
advice to him at key points. Their characters also reflect Christian belief that humans are assigned guardian angels, and
that devils can influence human thoughts.
Valdes: Friend to Faustus, who teaches him the dark arts. He appears only in Act One.
Cornelius: Friend to Faustus, who teaches him the dark arts. He appears only in Act One.
Lucifer: Satan. "Lucifer" original meant Venus, referring to the planet's brilliance. In
Christian lore, Lucifer is sometimes thought to be another name of Satan. Some traditions say that Lucifer was Satan's name
before the fall, while the Fathers of the Catholic Church held that Lucifer was not Satan's proper name but a word showing
the brilliance and beauty of his station before the fall. He appears at a few choice moments in Doctor Faustus, and Marlowe
uses "Lucifer" as Satan's proper name.
Belzebub: One of Lucifer's officers. A powerful demon.
The Seven Deadly Sins: Personifications of the Seven Deadly Sins, not acts but impulses
or motivations that lead men to sinful actions. They array themselves in a pageant before Faustus, although scholars think
now that this section was not written by Marlowe.
Clown / Robin: Robin learns demon summoning by stealing one of Faustus' books. He is the
chief character in a number of scenes that provide comic relief from the main story.
Dick: A friend of Robin's. He is one of the characters peopling the few comic relief scenes.
Rafe: A horse ostler, or groomer, and friend to Robin. With the Clown, he summons Mephostophilis,
who is none too pleased to be called.
Vintner: A wine merchant or a wine maker. This Vintner chases down Robin and Rafe after
they steal a silver goblet from him.
Carter: A man who meets Faustus while carting hay to town. Faustus swindles him.
Horse-Courser: A man who buys Faustus' horse. Faustus swindles him.
Hostess: An ale wench. She treats Robin and his friends kindly.
The Pope: Yeah, that Pope. In a move that would have pleases his Protestant audience, Marlowe
depicts him as cruel, power-mad, and far from holy. Faustus plays some cheap tricks on him.
Bruno: A man who would be Pope, selected by the German emperor and representing the conflicts
between Church and state authority.
Raymond: King of Hungary.
He serves the Pope.
Charles: The German Emperor. Faustus performs at his court.
Martino: Knight in the court of the German Emperor. Friend to Benvolio and Frederick. When
Benvolio seeks revenge against Faustus, Martino decides to help out of loyalty.
Frederick: Knight in the court of the German Emperor. Friend to Martino and Benvolio.
When Benvolio seeks revenge against Faustus, Frederick decides to help out of loyalty.
Benvolio: Knight in the court of the German Emperor. Friend to Martino and Frederick. When
Faustus humiliates him, he seeks revenge.
A man attending at the court of the German Emperor.
Duke of Vanholt: A nobleman. Faustus performs illusions at his court.
Duchess of Vanholt: A noblewoman. Faustus fetches her grapes in January.
Spirits in the shapes of Alexander the Great, Darius, Paramour, and Helen: Faustus' illusions.
An Old Man: A holy old man. He tries to save Faustus by getting him to repent, and for
his good deed, Faustus initially thanks him. But later, Faustus sends devils to harm the Old Man.